Post World War I Relief Work in Europe

Introduction

This primary source packet contains resources related to Americans doing relief work in Europe during and after World War I (approximately 1917-1922). These materials can support classes and research interested in US involvement in international issues, peace and conflict studies, the emergence of non-governmental organizations, humanitarianism, relief work, and mission work.  Potential pedagogical goals from using these materials might include understanding the ways in which Americans undertaking this work talk about it and the world they are experiencing, examining whose voices are represented and whose are not, comparing accounts of similar time periods from different places and by different authors, and exploring, analyzing, and putting in conversation primary sources. 

The materials in this packet document men and women, mostly with Quaker backgrounds, working in France, Germany, Poland, and Russia from 1917 to 1922. They worked through or with the YMCA/YWCA and the American Friends Service Committee (AFSC). There are numerous other related resources housed in Quaker & Special Collections; a longer list can be found at our subject guide on relief work materials in the collections. 

Packet contents:

  • List of primary sources
  • Guiding questions for engaging with the primary sources
  • Articles which provide background on this topic
    • Bruno Cabanes. “The hungry and the sick: Herbert Hoover, the Russian famine, and the professionalization of humanitarian aid” in The Great War and the Origins of Humanitarianism, 1918–1924. Cambridge University Press, 2014. 189-247. 
    • Julia F. Irwin. “The disaster of war: American understandings of catastrophe, conflict and relief” First World War Studies 5 no. 1 (2014), 17-28.

Primary Sources

Beulah Waring. Correspondence. 1919-1922. HC-MC-1225.
[Digitized materials]

Joseph Haines. Correspondence. 1917-1918. HC-MC-950-095.
[Digitized materials]

Francis R. Bacon. Correspondence. 1920-1922. HC-MC-1226.
[Digitized materials]

Katharine and Howard Elkinton. Correspondence. 1917-1922. HC-MC-1239.
[Digitized materials]

Guiding Questions

  • Who created the document(s)?  For what purpose?
  • Describe the implied audience for these materials. What informs your opinion?
  • How do these documents inform your thinking about international relief work?
  • Do these documents provide support for ideas you have been discussing? If so, how? If not, why might that be the case?
  • What additional (contextual) information would you need to know to fully understand your document(s)?  Where might you find some of this information, and why might you choose a particular source over another?  

Service and Missionary Work in Japan and China

Introduction

This primary source packet contains resources related to service and missionary work undertaken by Americans in 20th century Japan and China. These materials can support classes and research interested in US relations with China and Japan, mission work, education, non-governmental organizations, humanitarianism, and international medical work. Potential pedagogical goals from using these materials might include understanding the ways in which Americans working in Asia talk about their experiences and the people they work with, thinking about US-Japan and US-China relationships in the years around World War II, examining whose voices are represented and whose are not, and exploring, analyzing, and putting in conversation primary sources. 

The materials in this packet document several women teaching at Friends School, Tokyo, a woman working with relief organizations in post-World War II Japan, and a medical missionary and educator in China. This is only a small amount of the materials on these topics available in Quaker & Special Collections. More information on further materials can be found in our subject guide on materials related to Asia in the collections. 

Packet contents:

  • List of primary sources
  • Guiding questions for engaging with the primary sources
  • Articles which provide background on this topic

Primary Sources

Alice Lewis Pearson. Correspondence. 1905-1923. HC-MC-1010.
[Digitized materials]

Esther Balderson. Correspondence. 1914-1915. HC-MC-1185.
[Digitized materials]

Sara Greene Smith. Letters from students and friends in Japan. Mostly 1940s and 1950s. HC-MC-955.
[Digitized materials]  

Esther Rhoads. Materials related to post-World War II AFSC and LARA relief work. 1940s and 1950s. HC-MC-1153.
[Digitized materials]

William Warder and Catherine Cadbury. Letters and Photographs. 1920s. HC-MC-1192.
[Digitized materials]

Guiding Questions

  • Who created the document(s)?  For what purpose?
  • Describe the implied audience for these materials. What informs your opinion?
  • How do these documents inform our thinking about international mission work?
  • Do these documents provide support for ideas you have been discussing? If so, how? If not, why might that be the case?
  • What additional (contextual) information would you need to know to fully understand your document(s)?  Where might you find some of this information, and why might you choose a particular source over another?  

Japanese Tourist Photography

Introduction

This primary source packet contains Japanese tourist photography from the late 19th and early 20th century. Materials can support classes and research interested in Japanese culture, the development of photography, Japanese interactions with Western countries, and Japanese art. Pedagogical goals from using these materials might include analysis of visual materials, examining issues of “modernization” in Meiji Japan, and exploring the ways in which photographs attempt to shape the thoughts and opinions of their viewers. 

Packet contents: 

  • List of primary sources
  • Guiding questions for engaging with the primary sources
  • Articles which provide background on this topic
    • Hockley, Allen. “”Expectation and Authenticity in Meiji Tourist Photography.” In Challenging Past and Present: The Metamorphosis of Nineteenth-Century Japanese Art, ed. Ellen P. Conant. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2006. 114-32. (https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctvvmzdn.11 )
    • Wakita, Mio. “Between Commercialism and Ideology.” In Staging desires : Japanese femininity in Kusakabe Kimbei’s nineteenth-century souvenir photography. Berlin: Reimer, 2013. 93-131. 
    • Fraser, Karen M. “Introduction.” In Photography and Japan. London: Reaktion Books, 2011.

Primary Sources

All the photographs listed here are albumen prints; color was applied by hand. The photographs are not attributed to any of the photographers or photography studios operating at the time. 

Wysteria Vine, HC2019-0047 

Untitled (Japanese Shade Painters), HC08-0033 

Huge Fish Pennants, HC12-5520

Maiko, Gion Street, Kyoto, HC12-5534

Temple of Yokohama, HC12-5540 

Daibutsu at Kamakura, HC12-5564 

Club Hotel, Yokohama, HC12-5565 

Planting Ricefield, HC12-5580 

Fuji from Otometoge, HC12-5595 

Grinding Unhulled Rice, HC12-5619 

Girls Looking at Flowers, HC12-5541

Man Pulling Cart, HC12-5548 

Fujiyama from Hakone, HC12-5602 

Quaker & Special Collections holds over 100 examples of Japanese tourist photography. Digitized versions of all these materials can be found via triarte.brynmawr.edu. 

Guiding Questions

Some helpful questions for discussion when viewing each item in this packet include:

  • Who is the intended audience for this image? How does that influence your reading?
  • How would you describe the subject of this image? What parts of the image are emphasized?
  • How does the use of color influence your reading of the photograph? Why might some parts of the photograph be colored? Why do you think the photographer made these choices?
  • How does this image explore or show the tensions between an idealized view of Japan and a portrayal of Japan as a “modern” nation? 
  • What do you find particularly interesting or surprising about these photographs?

Native American/Settler Interactions in the Early Republic

Introduction

This packet contains materials related to Native American and colonial settler interactions in the period of the Early United States Republic (1780s-1810s). Specifically, materials document interactions between the Seneca and Oneida in Western New York State and Pennsylvania Quakers. These materials may be of interest to those studying Indigenous history, early US history, and borderlands. Pedagogical possibilities include the exploration of what voices are present or missing in documents, analyzing a “private” document, and exploration of the ways in which religion and politics shape the everyday experiences depicted in the documents. 

Packet contents:

  • List of primary sources
  • Guiding questions for students using these manuscripts
  • Articles for background and context
    • Daggar, Lori J. “The Mission Complex: Economic Development, “Civilization,” and Empire in the Early Republic.” Journal of the Early Republic 36, no. 3 (2016): 467-491. doi:10.1353/jer.2016.0044.
    • Dennis, Matthew. “Friendly Mission: The Holy Conversation of Quakers and Senecas.” In Seneca Possessed: Indians, Witchcraft, and Power in the Early American Republic, 117-47. University of Pennsylvania Press, 2010. Accessed June 12, 2020. www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt3fhbp7.7.
    • Krischer, Elana. “Expansion in the East: Seneca Sovereignty, Quaker Missionaries, and the Great Survey, 1797–1801.” In Inventing Destiny: Cultural Explorations of US Expansion, edited by Bryan Jimmy L., 74-88. University Press of Kansas, 2019. Accessed June 12, 2020. www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctvqsf3n3.8.

Primary Sources

Henry Simmons. Journal. Vol. 2. 1799.MC 975-01-072 v. 2
[Digitized version]

David Bacon. Some account of our journey to Cannandaigue [sic] 1794. MC 975-01-003
[Digitized version]

William Allinson. Journal: Visit to Indians in New York State. Vol. 2. 1809. MC 968
[Digitized version]

Isaac Coates, Joshua Sharpless, and John Pierce. Account of I. Coates, J. Sharpless, & J. Pierce, visits to Indian Reservation, NY. 1789-1799. MC 975-07-130
[Digitized version]

The above are only a sample of similar materials available in Quaker & Special Collections. Contact staff for information about other materials. 

Guiding Questions

Some helpful questions for discussions when viewing these materials include:

  • Who created the document(s)? For what purpose?
  • Describe the implied audience for these materials. What informs your opinion?
  • What arguments are these documents making?
  • Whose voices are heard within the documents? Whose are not?
  • How does the document(s) add to your understanding of early American history? Does it give you a new perspective or point of view? Does it seem to fit with other readings and discussions?